Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is an inflammation of the sebaceous glands found in human skin. Most often, acne affects face, neck, shoulders and locates in the sebaceous glands most likely.
In order to temporarily hide acne and blackheads people ofter use cosmetics on the face. Unfortunately, this does not solve the problem at all, and sometimes vice versa – only exacerbates it. Cosmetics clogs the ducts of the sebaceous glands even more, which in the future can cause an increase in the density of rashes.
There are many pores on the surface of the skin. These are the mouths of the hair follicles – cases that surround hair of the skin. The follicles open ducts of the sebaceous glands located under the skin. The figures below show the structure of a typical sebaceous gland.
The structure of the hair follicle: the mouth of the hair follicle (pore), which opens to the surface of the skin, sebaceous gland. The secretion of the sebaceous gland envelops the hair and reaches the surface of the skin.
Provoke the development of acne:
• hormonal imbalance;
• immunity weakening;
• neurological diseases;
• excessive work of the sebaceous glands;
• diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
• individual predisposition;
• certain medications.
These factors are not the cause of acne by themselves, but they can become a starting point that triggers the development of acne if the patient has a predisposition to it/
Ignoring the problem of acne or treating with untested methods leads to the development of complications, such as fulminant acne, conglobate acne (confluent conglomerates of spots and nodes), deep scars or scars that often remain after improper acne removal.
Symptoms of acne on the face are clearly expressed regardless of the type of rash. It is impossible not to notice them yourself:
- a scattering of small red tubercles on the face and chest;
- may have ulcers;
- after drying and dying, the rash leaves dark brown pigmentation in that place, often small scars on the skin;
- increased release of sebum;
- facial skin has an excessive oily sheen;
- hair on the head becomes oily after a day and a half after washing.
If you do not pay attention to the signs at this stage, then subsequently acne increases in size and begins to spread over a larger area, passing to the chest and back. Such formations leave significant scars.
4. Possible complications
People often think about acne as a diseace only after complications begun apearing on the skin. There are two types of complications:
- severe form – at least 20-40 acne, closed and open comedones, increased tuberosity of the skin. Special therapy required;
- extremely severe form – it is extremely rare in a large number of acne, nodular formations and papules. Needs serious acne treatment.
Sebaceous glands moisturize our skin and protect it from environmental influences. When the follicles of the sebaceous-hair ducts are clogged with a “cork”, acne (another name is comedones) develops from a mixture of sebum and dead skin flakes.
If the follicles are open, the corks look like black dots on the face, and are called open comedones. Comedones are also closed (do not communicate with the surface of the skin). Such comedones are called whiteheads, or white dots.
The production of sebum under the cork of the closed sebaceous duct is continuing and is an ideal medium for the growth of bacteria (propionic bacteria acne), which usually live peacefully and calmly in the sebaceous glands. The rapid growth of the bacterial population leads to the development of inflammation, which can occur on the skin from small pimples to huge purulent acne.
Numerous studies show that the primary cause of acne is hyperfunction of the sebaceous glands.
Manifestations of acne are quite characteristic, but in order to effectively cure it, you have to accurately determine its causes. That is what examination for. If necessary, laboratory tests are prescribed: a biochemical blood test, studies of the level of hormones, etc. It is also important to inform your doctor about past serious illnesses. Based on this information, doctors choose treatment tactics.
There are various methods of treatment. Doctors, dermatologists cosmetologists individually choose the most efficient of them, based on the patient’s age and severity of the disease.
Laser acne treatment effectively eliminates the problem of acne. The special laser rays allow gentle influence on acne with leaving no scars and marks.
Another effective method of acne treatment – ELOS technology, which is based on the effect of radio frequency waves to problem areas of the skin. Depending on the stage of acne, skin type and its individual characteristics, the dermatologists choose the optimal course of treatment, which consists on average of 5 – 10 treatments for 5-7 days.
If patient has mild form of acne (comedones, single or few blisters) it is usually enough to make local treatment, mechanical cleaning of the face or hardware procedures.
When it is clear, that patient has moderate or severe degrees of acne disease the local treatment is carried out in parallel with the general one, which is selected individually and may include antibiotics, hormonal drugs, vitamin complexes, etc.
After acne disappears, it is important to take courses of cosmetic procedures to restore healthy color and smoothness of the skin. After the self-treatment of acne, there may be the scarring or pigmentation, but they can be effectively removed with laser treatments or other advanced cosmetic procedures.
Since acne is often caused by hormonal disruptions, it is important to monitor hormonal status and regularly undergo medical examination. In addition, it helps to prevent acne, if person normalizes the weight, starts eating rationally, to eliminate the consumption of foods that may contain allergens or dyes to live a healthy lifestyle.
If the patient frequently uses cosmetics, it is necessary to visit beautician for help in the selection of cosmetics that best suits your skin and does not contribute to the development of acne or other health problems.